The Linux kernel is the core of the operating system that controls access to the system resources, such as CPU, I/O devices, physical memory, and file systems. The kernel writes various messages to the kernel ring buffer during the boot process, and when the system is running. These messages include various information about the operation of the system.
The kernel ring buffer is a portion of the physical memory that holds the kernel’s log messages. It has a fixed size, which means once the buffer is full, the older logs records are overwritten.
dmesg command-line utility is used to print and control the kernel ring buffer in Linux and other Unix-like operating systems. It is useful for examining kernel boot messages and debugging hardware related issues.
In this tutorial, we’ll cover the basics of the
The syntax for the
dmesg command is as follows:
When invoked without any options
dmesg writes all messages from the kernel ring buffer to the standard output:
By default, all users can run the
dmesg command. However, on some systems, the access to
dmesg may be restricted for non-root users. In this situation, when invoking
dmesg you will get an error message like below:
dmesg: read kernel buffer failed: Operation not permitted
The kernel parameter
kernel.dmesg_restrict specifies whether unprivileged users can use
dmesg to view messages from the kernel’s log buffer. To remove the restrictions, set it to zero:
sudo sysctl -w kernel.dmesg_restrict=0
Usually, the output contains a lot of lines of information, so only the last part of the output is viewable. To see one page at a time, pipe the output to a pager utility such as
dmesg --color=always | less
--color=always is used to preserve the colored output.
If you want to filter the buffer messages, use
grep. For example, to view only the USB related messages, you would type:
dmesg | grep -i usb
dmesg reads the messages generated by the kernel from the
/proc/kmsg virtual file. This file provides an interface to the kernel ring buffer and can be opened only by one process. If
syslog process is running on your system and you try to read the file with
less, the command will hang.
syslog daemon dumps kernel messages to
/var/log/dmesg, so you can also use that log file:
dmesg command provides a number of options that help you format and filter the output.
One of the most used options of
--human), which enables the human-readable output. This option pipe the command output into a pager:
To print human-readable timestamps use the
[Mon Oct 14 14:38:04 2019] IPv6: ADDRCONF(NETDEV_CHANGE): wlp1s0: link becomes ready
The timestamps format can also be set using the
--time-format <format> option, which can be ctime, reltime, delta, notime, or iso. For example to use the delta format you would type:
You can also combine two or more options:
dmesg -H -T
To watch the output of the
dmesg command in real-time use the
You can restrict the
dmesg output to given facilities and levels.
The facility represents the process that created the message.
dmesg supports the following log facilities:
kern– kernel messages
user– user-level messages
daemon– system daemons
auth– security/authorization messages
syslog– internal syslogd messages
lpr– line printer subsystem
news– network news subsystem
--facility <list>) option allows you to limit the output to specific facilities. The option accepts one or more comma-separated facilities.
For example, to display only the kernel and system daemons messages you would use:
dmesg -f kern,daemon
Each log message is associated with a log level that shows the importance of the message.
dmesg supports the following log levels:
emerg– system is unusable
alert– action must be taken immediately
crit– critical conditions
err– error conditions
warn– warning conditions
notice– normal but significant condition
debug– debug-level messages
--level <list>) option restricts the output to defined levels. The option accepts one or more comma-separated levels.
The following command displays only the error and critical messages:
dmesg -l err,crit
Clearing the Ring Buffer
--clear) option allows you to clear the ring buffer:
sudo dmesg -C
Only root or users with sudo privileges can clear the buffer.
To print the buffer contents before clearing use the
sudo dmesg -c
If you want to save the current
dmesg logs in a file before clearing it, redirect the output to a file:
dmesg > dmesg_messages